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Taikun OCP Guide

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Bootstrapping Identity

After keystone is deployed and configured, it must be pre-populated
with some initial data before it can be used. This process is known as
bootstrapping and it typically involves creating the system’s first
user, project, domain, service, and endpoint, among other things. The
goal of bootstrapping is to put enough information into the system such
that it can function solely through the API using normal authentication
flows. After the first user is created, which must be an administrator,
you can use that account to interact with keystone via the API.

Keystone provides two separate ways to bootstrap a deployment. The
first is with the keystone-manage bootstrap command. This
is the preferred and recommended way to bootstrap new installations. The
second, and original way of bootstrapping involves configuring a secret
and deploying special middleware in front of the identity service. The
secret is known as the ADMIN_TOKEN. Any requests made to
the identity API with the ADMIN_TOKEN will completely
bypass authentication allowing access to the entire API.

Using the CLI

The process requires access to an environment with keystone binaries
installed, typically on the service host.

The keystone-manage bootstrap command will create a
user, project and role, and will assign the newly created role to the
newly created user on the newly created project. By default, the names
of these new resources will be called admin.

The defaults may be overridden by calling
--bootstrap-username, --bootstrap-project-name
and --bootstrap-role-name. Each of these have an
environment variable equivalent: OS_BOOTSTRAP_USERNAME,

A user password must also be supplied. This can be passed in as
either --bootstrap-password, or set as an environment

Optionally, if specified by --bootstrap-public-url,
--bootstrap-admin-url and/or
--bootstrap-internal-url or the equivalent environment
variables, the command will create an identity service with the
specified endpoint information. You may also configure the
--bootstrap-region-id and
--bootstrap-service-name for the endpoints to your
deployment’s requirements.


We strongly recommend that you configure the identity service and its
endpoints while bootstrapping keystone.

Minimally, keystone can be bootstrapped with:

$ keystone-manage bootstrap --bootstrap-password s3cr3t

Verbosely, keystone can be bootstrapped with:

$ keystone-manage bootstrap \
    --bootstrap-password s3cr3t \
    --bootstrap-username admin \
    --bootstrap-project-name admin \
    --bootstrap-role-name admin \
    --bootstrap-service-name keystone \
    --bootstrap-region-id RegionOne \
    --bootstrap-admin-url http://localhost:5000 \
    --bootstrap-public-url http://localhost:5000 \
    --bootstrap-internal-url http://localhost:5000

This will create an admin user with the
admin role on the admin project and the
system. This allows the user to generate project-scoped and
system-scoped tokens which ensures they have full RBAC authorization.
The user will have the password specified in the command. Note that both
the user and the project will be created in the default
domain. By not creating an endpoint in the catalog users will need to
provide endpoint overrides to perform additional identity

This command will also create member and
reader roles. The admin role implies the
member role and member role implies the
reader role. By default, these three roles are immutable,
meaning they are created with the immutable resource option
and cannot be modified or deleted unless the option is removed. To
disable this behavior, add the --no-immutable-roles

By creating an admin user and an identity endpoint you
may authenticate to keystone and perform identity operations like
creating additional services and endpoints using the admin
user. This will preclude the need to ever use or configure the
admin_token (described below). It is also, by design, more

To test a proper configuration, a user can use OpenStackClient

$ openstack project list --os-username admin --os-project-name admin \
    --os-user-domain-id default --os-project-domain-id default \
    --os-identity-api-version 3 --os-auth-url http://localhost:5000 \
    --os-password s3cr3t

Using a shared secret


We strongly recommended that you configure the identity service with
the keystone-manage bootstrap command and not the
ADMIN_TOKEN. The ADMIN_TOKEN can leave your
deployment vulnerable by exposing administrator functionality through
the API based solely on a single secret. You shouldn’t have to use
ADMIN_TOKEN at all, unless you have some special case
bootstrapping requirements.

Before you can use the identity API, you need to configure keystone
with a shared secret. Requests made with this secret will bypass
authentication and grant administrative access to the identity API. The
following configuration snippet shows the shared secret as being

admin_token = ADMIN

You can use the shared secret, or admin_token, to make
API request to keystone that bootstrap the rest of the deployment. You
must create a project, user, and role in order to use normal user
authentication through the API.

The admin_token does not represent a user or explicit
authorization of any kind. After bootstrapping, failure to remove this
functionality exposes an additional attack vector and security risk.