taikun.cloud

Taikun Logo

Taikun OCP Guide

Table of Contents

IPv6

This section describes the OpenStack Networking reference
implementation for IPv6, including the following items:

  • How to enable dual-stack (IPv4 and IPv6 enabled) instances.
  • How those instances receive an IPv6 address.
  • How those instances communicate across a router to other subnets or
    the internet.
  • How those instances interact with other OpenStack services.

Enabling a dual-stack network in OpenStack Networking simply requires
creating a subnet with the ip_version field set to
6, then the IPv6 attributes (ipv6_ra_mode and
ipv6_address_mode) set. The ipv6_ra_mode and
ipv6_address_mode will be described in detail in the next
section. Finally, the subnets cidr needs to be
provided.

This section does not include the following items:

  • Single stack IPv6 project networking
  • OpenStack control communication between servers and services over an
    IPv6 network.
  • Connection to the OpenStack APIs via an IPv6 transport network
  • IPv6 multicast
  • IPv6 support in conjunction with any out of tree routers, switches,
    services or agents whether in physical or virtual form factors.

Neutron subnets and
the IPv6 API attributes

As of Juno, the OpenStack Networking service (neutron) provides two
new attributes to the subnet object, which allows users of the API to
configure IPv6 subnets.

There are two IPv6 attributes:

  • ipv6_ra_mode
  • ipv6_address_mode

These attributes can be set to the following values:

  • slaac
  • dhcpv6-stateful
  • dhcpv6-stateless

The attributes can also be left unset.

IPv6 addressing

The ipv6_address_mode attribute is used to control how
addressing is handled by OpenStack. There are a number of different ways
that guest instances can obtain an IPv6 address, and this attribute
exposes these choices to users of the Networking API.

Router advertisements

The ipv6_ra_mode attribute is used to control router
advertisements for a subnet.

The IPv6 Protocol uses Internet Control Message Protocol packets
(ICMPv6) as a way to distribute information about networking. ICMPv6
packets with the type flag set to 134 are called “Router Advertisement”
messages, which contain information about the router and the route that
can be used by guest instances to send network traffic.

The ipv6_ra_mode is used to specify if the Networking
service should generate Router Advertisement messages for a subnet.

ipv6_ra_mode
and ipv6_address_mode combinations

ipv6 ra modeipv6 address modeneutron-generated advertisements (radvd) A,M,OExternal Router A,M,ODescription
N/SN/SOffNot DefinedBackwards compatibility with pre-Juno IPv6 behavior.
N/SslaacOff1,0,0Guest instance obtains IPv6 address from non-OpenStack router using
SLAAC.
N/Sdhcpv6-statefulOff0,1,1Not currently implemented in the reference implementation.
N/Sdhcpv6-statelessOff1,0,1Not currently implemented in the reference implementation.
slaacN/S1,0,0OffNot currently implemented in the reference implementation.
dhcpv6-statefulN/S0,1,1OffNot currently implemented in the reference implementation.
dhcpv6-statelessN/S1,0,1OffNot currently implemented in the reference implementation.
slaacslaac1,0,0OffGuest instance obtains IPv6 address from OpenStack managed radvd
using SLAAC.
dhcpv6-statefuldhcpv6-stateful0,1,1OffGuest instance obtains IPv6 address from dnsmasq using DHCPv6
stateful and optional info from dnsmasq using DHCPv6.
dhcpv6-statelessdhcpv6-stateless1,0,1OffGuest instance obtains IPv6 address from OpenStack managed radvd
using SLAAC and optional info from dnsmasq using DHCPv6.
slaacdhcpv6-statefulInvalid combination.
slaacdhcpv6-statelessInvalid combination.
dhcpv6-statefulslaacInvalid combination.
dhcpv6-statefuldhcpv6-statelessInvalid combination.
dhcpv6-statelessslaacInvalid combination.
dhcpv6-statelessdhcpv6-statefulInvalid combination.

A – Autonomous Address Configuration Flag, M – Managed
Address Configuration Flag,
O – Other Configuration
Flag

Project network
considerations

Dataplane

Both the Linux bridge and the Open vSwitch dataplane modules support
forwarding IPv6 packets amongst the guests and router ports. Similar to
IPv4, there is no special configuration or setup required to enable the
dataplane to properly forward packets from the source to the destination
using IPv6. Note that these dataplanes will forward Link-local Address
(LLA) packets between hosts on the same network just fine without any
participation or setup by OpenStack components after the ports are all
connected and MAC addresses learned.

Addresses for subnets

There are three methods currently implemented for a subnet to get its
cidr in OpenStack:

  1. Direct assignment during subnet creation via command line or
    Horizon
  2. Referencing a subnet pool during subnet creation
  3. Using a Prefix Delegation (PD) client to request a prefix for a
    subnet from a PD server

In the future, additional techniques could be used to allocate
subnets to projects, for example, use of an external IPAM module.

Address modes for ports

Note

An external DHCPv6 server in theory could override the full address
OpenStack assigns based on the EUI-64 address, but that would not be
wise as it would not be consistent through the system.

IPv6 supports three different addressing schemes for address
configuration and for providing optional network information.

Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC)

Address configuration using Router Advertisements.

DHCPv6-stateless

Address configuration using Router Advertisements and optional
information using DHCPv6.

DHCPv6-stateful

Address configuration and optional information using DHCPv6.

OpenStack can be setup such that OpenStack Networking directly
provides Router Advertisements, DHCP relay and DHCPv6 address and
optional information for their networks or this can be delegated to
external routers and services based on the drivers that are in use.
There are two neutron subnet attributes –ipv6_ra_mode and
ipv6_address_mode – that determine how IPv6 addressing and
network information is provided to project instances:

  • ipv6_ra_mode: Determines who sends Router
    Advertisements.
  • ipv6_address_mode: Determines how instances obtain IPv6
    address, default gateway, or optional information.

For the above two attributes to be effective,
enable_dhcp of the subnet object must be set to True.

Warning

When updating a network which already has bound ports with a subnet
in which Autonomous Address Configuration is enabled (Stateless Address
Auto Configuration, DHCPv6-stateless) the ports will be updated with the
new address. This will not happen if the subnet is DHCPv6-stateful. The
same is true for the case when the ports are bound with an IPv6 subnet
(the network has no other IPv4 subnet), and an IPv4 subnet is added
later, the ports will not be updated.

For more details see the bug https://bugs.launchpad.net/neutron/+bug/1719806.

A workaround is to manually update the port with fixed_ips and add
the subnet in the request.

Using SLAAC for addressing

When using SLAAC, the currently supported combinations for
ipv6_ra_mode and ipv6_address_mode are as
follows.

ipv6_ra_modeipv6_address_modeResult
Not specified.SLAACAddresses are assigned using EUI-64, and an external router will be
used for routing.
SLAACSLAACAddress are assigned using EUI-64, and OpenStack Networking provides
routing.

Setting SLAAC for ipv6_ra_mode configures the neutron
router with an radvd agent to send Router Advertisements. The list below
captures the values set for the address configuration flags in the
Router Advertisement messages in this scenario.

  • Autonomous Address Configuration Flag = 1
  • Managed Address Configuration Flag = 0
  • Other Configuration Flag = 0

New or existing neutron networks that contain a SLAAC enabled IPv6
subnet will result in all neutron ports attached to the network
receiving IPv6 addresses. This is because when Router Advertisement
messages are multicast on a neutron network, they are received by all
IPv6 capable ports on the network, and each port will then configure an
IPv6 address based on the information contained in the Router
Advertisement messages. In some cases, an IPv6 SLAAC address will be
added to a port, in addition to other IPv4 and IPv6 addresses that the
port already has been assigned.

Note

If a router is not created and added to the subnet, SLAAC addressing
will not succeed for instances since no Router Advertisement messages
will be generated.

DHCPv6

For DHCPv6, the currently supported combinations are as follows:

ipv6_ra_modeipv6_address_modeResult
DHCPv6-statelessDHCPv6-statelessAddresses are assigned through Router Advertisements (see SLAAC
above) and optional information is delivered through DHCPv6.
DHCPv6-statefulDHCPv6-statefulAddresses and optional information are assigned using DHCPv6.

Setting DHCPv6-stateless for ipv6_ra_mode configures the
neutron router with an radvd agent to send Router Advertisements. The
list below captures the values set for the address configuration flags
in the Router Advertisement messages in this scenario. Similarly,
setting DHCPv6-stateless for ipv6_address_mode configures
neutron DHCP implementation to provide the additional network
information.

  • Autonomous Address Configuration Flag = 1
  • Managed Address Configuration Flag = 0
  • Other Configuration Flag = 1

Setting DHCPv6-stateful for ipv6_ra_mode configures the
neutron router with an radvd agent to send Router Advertisements. The
list below captures the values set for the address configuration flags
in the Router Advertisements messages in this scenario. Similarly,
setting DHCPv6-stateful for ipv6_address_mode configures
neutron DHCP implementation to provide addresses and additional network
information through DHCPv6.

  • Autonomous Address Configuration Flag = 0
  • Managed Address Configuration Flag = 1
  • Other Configuration Flag = 1

Note

If a router is not created and added to the subnet, DHCPv6 addressing
will not succeed for instances since no Router Advertisement messages
will be generated.

Router support

The behavior of the neutron router for IPv6 is different than for
IPv4 in a few ways.

Internal router ports, that act as default gateway ports for a
network, will share a common port for all IPv6 subnets associated with
the network. This implies that there will be an IPv6 internal router
interface with multiple IPv6 addresses from each of the IPv6 subnets
associated with the network and a separate IPv4 internal router
interface for the IPv4 subnet. On the other hand, external router ports
are allowed to have a dual-stack configuration with both an IPv4 and an
IPv6 address assigned to them.

Neutron project networks that are assigned Global Unicast Address
(GUA) prefixes and addresses don’t require NAT on the neutron router
external gateway port to access the outside world. As a consequence of
the lack of NAT the external router port doesn’t require a GUA to send
and receive to the external networks. This implies a GUA IPv6 subnet
prefix is not necessarily needed for the neutron external network. By
default, a IPv6 LLA associated with the external gateway port can be
used for routing purposes. To handle this scenario, the implementation
of router-gateway-set API in neutron has been modified so that an IPv6
subnet is not required for the external network that is associated with
the neutron router. The LLA address of the upstream router can be
learned in two ways.

  1. In the absence of an upstream Router Advertisement message, the
    ipv6_gateway flag can be set with the external router
    gateway LLA in the neutron L3 agent configuration file. This also
    requires that no subnet is associated with that port.
  2. The upstream router can send a Router Advertisement and the neutron
    router will automatically learn the next-hop LLA, provided again that no
    subnet is assigned and the ipv6_gateway flag is not
    set.

Effectively the ipv6_gateway flag takes precedence over
a Router Advertisements that is received from the upstream router. If it
is desired to use a GUA next hop that is accomplished by allocating a
subnet to the external router port and assigning the upstream routers
GUA address as the gateway for the subnet.

Note

It should be possible for projects to communicate with each other on
an isolated network (a network without a router port) using LLA with
little to no participation on the part of OpenStack. The authors of this
section have not proven that to be true for all scenarios.

Note

When using the neutron L3 agent in a configuration where it is
auto-configuring an IPv6 address via SLAAC, and the agent is learning
its default IPv6 route from the ICMPv6 Router Advertisement, it may be
necessary to set the
net.ipv6.conf.<physical_interface>.accept_ra sysctl
to the value 2 in order for routing to function correctly.
For a more detailed description, please see the bug.

Neutron’s
Distributed Router feature and IPv6

IPv6 does work when the Distributed Virtual Router functionality is
enabled, but all ingress/egress traffic is via the centralized router
(hence, not distributed). More work is required to fully enable this
functionality.

Advanced services

VPNaaS

VPNaaS supports IPv6, but support in Kilo and prior releases will
have some bugs that may limit how it can be used. More thorough and
complete testing and bug fixing is being done as part of the Liberty
release. IPv6-based VPN-as-a-Service is configured similar to the IPv4
configuration. Either or both the peer_address and the
peer_cidr can specified as an IPv6 address. The choice of
addressing modes and router modes described above should not impact
support.

FWaaS

FWaaS allows creation of IPv6 based rules.

NAT & Floating IPs

At the current time OpenStack Networking does not provide any
facility to support any flavor of NAT with IPv6. Unlike IPv4 there is no
current embedded support for floating IPs with IPv6. It is assumed that
the IPv6 addressing amongst the projects is using GUAs with no overlap
across the projects.

Security considerations

For more information about security considerations, see the
Security groups section in intro-os-networking.

Configuring interfaces of
the guest

OpenStack currently doesn’t support the Privacy Extensions defined by
RFC 4941, or the Opaque Identifier generation methods defined in RFC
7217. The interface identifier and DUID used must be directly derived
from the MAC address as described in RFC 2373. The compute instances
must not be set up to utilize either of these methods when generating
their interface identifier, or they might not be able to communicate
properly on the network. For example, in Linux guests, these are
controlled via these two sysctl variables:

  • net.ipv6.conf.*.use_tempaddr (Privacy Extensions)

This allows the use of non-changing interface identifiers for IPv6
addresses according to RFC3041 semantics. It should be disabled (zero)
so that stateless addresses are constructed using a stable, EUI64-based
value.

  • net.ipv6.conf.*.addr_gen_mode

This defines how link-local and auto-configured IPv6 addresses are
generated. It should be set to zero (default) so that IPv6 addresses are
generated using an EUI64-based value.

Note

Support for addr_gen_mode was added in kernel version
4.11.

Other types of guests might have similar configuration options,
please consult your distribution documentation for more information.

There are no provisions for an IPv6-based metadata service similar to
what is provided for IPv4. In the case of dual-stacked guests though it
is always possible to use the IPv4 metadata service instead. IPv6-only
guests will have to use another method for metadata injection such as
using a configuration drive, which is described in the Nova
documentation on config-drive.

Unlike IPv4, the MTU of a given network can be conveyed in both the
Router Advertisement messages sent by the router, as well as in DHCP
messages.

OpenStack
control & management network considerations

As of the Kilo release, considerable effort has gone in to ensuring
the project network can handle dual stack IPv6 and IPv4 transport across
the variety of configurations described above. OpenStack control network
can be run in a dual stack configuration and OpenStack API endpoints can
be accessed via an IPv6 network. At this time, Open vSwitch (OVS) tunnel
types – STT, VXLAN, GRE, support both IPv4 and IPv6 endpoints.

Prefix delegation

Warning

This feature is experimental with low test coverage, and the Dibbler
client which is used for this feature is no longer maintained. For
details see: https://github.com/tomaszmrugalski/dibbler#project-status

From the Liberty release onwards, OpenStack Networking supports IPv6
prefix delegation. This section describes the configuration and workflow
steps necessary to use IPv6 prefix delegation to provide automatic
allocation of subnet CIDRs. This allows you as the OpenStack
administrator to rely on an external (to the OpenStack Networking
service) DHCPv6 server to manage your project network prefixes.

Note

Prefix delegation became available in the Liberty release, it is not
available in the Kilo release. HA and DVR routers are not currently
supported by this feature.

Configuring
OpenStack Networking for prefix delegation

To enable prefix delegation, edit the
/etc/neutron/neutron.conf file.

ipv6_pd_enabled = True

Note

If you are not using the default dibbler-based driver for prefix
delegation, then you also need to set the driver in
/etc/neutron/neutron.conf:

pd_dhcp_driver = <class path to driver>

Drivers other than the default one may require extra
configuration.

This tells OpenStack Networking to use the prefix delegation
mechanism for subnet allocation when the user does not provide a CIDR or
subnet pool id when creating a subnet.

Requirements

To use this feature, you need a prefix delegation capable DHCPv6
server that is reachable from your OpenStack Networking node(s). This
could be software running on the OpenStack Networking node(s) or
elsewhere, or a physical router. For the purposes of this guide we are
using the open-source DHCPv6 server, Dibbler. Dibbler is available in
many Linux package managers, or from source at tomaszmrugalski/dibbler.

When using the reference implementation of the OpenStack Networking
prefix delegation driver, Dibbler must also be installed on your
OpenStack Networking node(s) to serve as a DHCPv6 client. Version 1.0.1
or higher is required.

This guide assumes that you are running a Dibbler server on the
network node where the external network bridge exists. If you already
have a prefix delegation capable DHCPv6 server in place, then you can
skip the following section.

Configuring the Dibbler
server

After installing Dibbler, edit the
/etc/dibbler/server.conf file:

script "/var/lib/dibbler/pd-server.sh"

iface "br-ex" {
    pd-class {
        pd-pool 2001:db8:2222::/48
        pd-length 64
    }
}

The options used in the configuration file above are:

  • script Points to a script to be run when a prefix is
    delegated or released. This is only needed if you want instances on your
    subnets to have external network access. More on this below.
  • iface The name of the network interface on which to
    listen for prefix delegation messages.
  • pd-pool The larger prefix from which you want your
    delegated prefixes to come. The example given is sufficient if you do
    not need external network access, otherwise a unique globally routable
    prefix is necessary.
  • pd-length The length that delegated prefixes will be.
    This must be 64 to work with the current OpenStack Networking reference
    implementation.

To provide external network access to your instances, your Dibbler
server also needs to create new routes for each delegated prefix. This
is done using the script file named in the config file above. Edit the
/var/lib/dibbler/pd-server.sh file:

if [ "$PREFIX1" != "" ]; then
    if [ "$1" == "add" ]; then
        sudo ip -6 route add ${PREFIX1}/64 via $REMOTE_ADDR dev $IFACE
    fi
    if [ "$1" == "delete" ]; then
        sudo ip -6 route del ${PREFIX1}/64 via $REMOTE_ADDR dev $IFACE
    fi
fi

The variables used in the script file above are:

  • $PREFIX1 The prefix being added/deleted by the Dibbler
    server.
  • $1 The operation being performed.
  • $REMOTE_ADDR The IP address of the requesting Dibbler
    client.
  • $IFACE The network interface upon which the request was
    received.

The above is all you need in this scenario, but more information on
installing, configuring, and running Dibbler is available in the Dibbler
user guide, at Dibbler – a
portable DHCPv6
.

To start your Dibbler server, run:

# dibbler-server run

Or to run in headless mode:

# dibbler-server start

When using DevStack, it is important to start your server after the
stack.sh script has finished to ensure that the required
network interfaces have been created.

User workflow

First, create a network and IPv6 subnet:

$ openstack network create ipv6-pd
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                     | Value                                |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up            | UP                                   |
| availability_zone_hints   |                                      |
| availability_zones        |                                      |
| created_at                | 2017-01-25T19:26:01Z                 |
| description               |                                      |
| headers                   |                                      |
| id                        | 4b782725-6abe-4a2d-b061-763def1bb029 |
| ipv4_address_scope        | None                                 |
| ipv6_address_scope        | None                                 |
| mtu                       | 1450                                 |
| name                      | ipv6-pd                              |
| port_security_enabled     | True                                 |
| project_id                | 61b7eba037fd41f29cfba757c010faff     |
| provider:network_type     | vxlan                                |
| provider:physical_network | None                                 |
| provider:segmentation_id  | 46                                   |
| revision_number           | 3                                    |
| router:external           | Internal                             |
| shared                    | False                                |
| status                    | ACTIVE                               |
| subnets                   |                                      |
| tags                      | []                                   |
| updated_at                | 2017-01-25T19:26:01Z                 |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+

$ openstack subnet create --ip-version 6 --ipv6-ra-mode slaac \
--ipv6-address-mode slaac --use-default-subnet-pool \
--network ipv6-pd ipv6-pd-1
+------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                  | Value                                |
+------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| allocation_pools       | ::2-::ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff            |
| cidr                   | ::/64                                |
| created_at             | 2017-01-25T19:31:53Z                 |
| description            |                                      |
| dns_nameservers        |                                      |
| enable_dhcp            | True                                 |
| gateway_ip             | ::1                                  |
| headers                |                                      |
| host_routes            |                                      |
| id                     | 1319510d-c92c-4532-bf5d-8bcf3da761a1 |
| ip_version             | 6                                    |
| ipv6_address_mode      | slaac                                |
| ipv6_ra_mode           | slaac                                |
| name                   | ipv6-pd-1                            |
| network_id             | 4b782725-6abe-4a2d-b061-763def1bb029 |
| project_id             | 61b7eba037fd41f29cfba757c010faff     |
| revision_number        | 2                                    |
| service_types          |                                      |
| subnetpool_id          | prefix_delegation                    |
| tags                   | []                                   |
| updated_at             | 2017-01-25T19:31:53Z                 |
| use_default_subnetpool | True                                 |
+------------------------+--------------------------------------+

The subnet is initially created with a temporary CIDR before one can
be assigned by prefix delegation. Any number of subnets with this
temporary CIDR can exist without raising an overlap error. The
subnetpool_id is automatically set to
prefix_delegation.

To trigger the prefix delegation process, create a router interface
between this subnet and a router with an active interface on the
external network:

$ openstack router add subnet router1 ipv6-pd-1

The prefix delegation mechanism then sends a request via the external
network to your prefix delegation server, which replies with the
delegated prefix. The subnet is then updated with the new prefix,
including issuing new IP addresses to all ports:

$ openstack subnet show ipv6-pd-1
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| allocation_pools  | 2001:db8:2222:6977::2-2001:db8:2222: |
|                   | 6977:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff             |
| cidr              | 2001:db8:2222:6977::/64              |
| created_at        | 2017-01-25T19:31:53Z                 |
| description       |                                      |
| dns_nameservers   |                                      |
| enable_dhcp       | True                                 |
| gateway_ip        | 2001:db8:2222:6977::1                |
| host_routes       |                                      |
| id                | 1319510d-c92c-4532-bf5d-8bcf3da761a1 |
| ip_version        | 6                                    |
| ipv6_address_mode | slaac                                |
| ipv6_ra_mode      | slaac                                |
| name              | ipv6-pd-1                            |
| network_id        | 4b782725-6abe-4a2d-b061-763def1bb029 |
| project_id        | 61b7eba037fd41f29cfba757c010faff     |
| revision_number   | 4                                    |
| service_types     |                                      |
| subnetpool_id     | prefix_delegation                    |
| tags              | []                                   |
| updated_at        | 2017-01-25T19:35:26Z                 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

If the prefix delegation server is configured to delegate globally
routable prefixes and setup routes, then any instance with a port on
this subnet should now have external network access.

Deleting the router interface causes the subnet to be reverted to the
temporary CIDR, and all ports have their IPs updated. Prefix leases are
released and renewed automatically as necessary.

References

The following presentation from the Barcelona Summit provides a great
guide for setting up IPv6 with OpenStack: Deploying IPv6 in
OpenStack Environments
.

taikun-logo-icon

Explore Taikun CloudWorks in 2 Minutes!