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Taikun OCP Guide

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Keystone Event Notifications

Keystone provides notifications about usage data so that 3rd party
applications can use the data for billing, monitoring, or quota
purposes. This document describes the current inclusions and exclusions
for Keystone notifications.

Keystone currently supports two notification formats: a Basic
Notification, and a Cloud Auditing Data Federation (CADF) Notification. The
supported operations between the two types of notification formats are
documented below.

Common Notification
Structure

Notifications generated by Keystone are generated in JSON format. An
external application can format them into ATOM format and publish them
as a feed. Currently, all notifications are immediate, meaning they are
generated when a specific event happens. Notifications all adhere to a
specific top level format:

{
    "event_type": "identity.<resource_type>.<operation>",
    "message_id": "<message_id>",
    "payload": {},
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.<hostname>",
    "timestamp": "<timestamp>"
}

Where <resource_type> is a Keystone resource, such
as user or project, and <operation> is a Keystone
operation, such as created, deleted.

The key differences between the two notification formats (Basic and
CADF), lie within the payload portion of the
notification.

The priority of the notification being sent is not
configurable through the Keystone configuration file. This value is
defaulted to INFO for all notifications sent in Keystone’s case.

Auditing with CADF

Keystone uses the PyCADF library to
emit CADF notifications, these events adhere to the DMTF CADF specification. This
standard provides auditing capabilities for compliance with security,
operational, and business processes and supports normalized and
categorized event data for federation and aggregation.

CADF notifications include additional context data around the
resource, the action and the
initiator.

CADF notifications may be emitted by changing the
notification_format to cadf in the
configuration file.

The payload portion of a CADF Notification is a CADF
event, which is represented as a JSON dictionary. For
example:

{
    "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
    "initiator": {
        "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
        "host": {
            "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
            "address": "127.0.0.1"
        },
        "id": "<initiator_id>"
    },
    "target": {
        "typeURI": "<target_uri>",
        "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
    },
    "observer": {
        "typeURI": "service/security",
        "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
    },
    "eventType": "activity",
    "eventTime": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
    "action": "<action>",
    "outcome": "success",
    "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f",
}

Where the following are defined:

  • <initiator_id>: ID of the user that performed the
    operation
  • <target_uri>: CADF specific target URI, (i.e.:
    data/security/project)
  • <action>: The action being performed, typically:
    <operation>. <resource_type>

Note

The eventType property of the CADF payload is different
from the event_type property of a notifications. The former
(eventType) is a CADF keyword which designates the type of
event that is being measured, this can be: activity, monitor or control. Whereas the latter
(event_type) is described in previous sections as: identity.<resource_type>.<operation>

Additionally there may be extra keys present depending on the
operation being performed, these will be discussed below.

Reason

There is a specific reason object that will be present
for the following PCI-DSS related events:

PCI-DSS Section reasonCode reasonType
8.1.6 Limit repeated access attempts by locking out the user after
more than X failed attempts.
401 Maximum number of <number> login attempts exceeded.
8.2.3 Passwords must meet the established criteria. 400 Password does not meet expected requirements:
<regex_description>
8.2.4 Password must be changed every X days. 401 Password for <user> expired and must be changed
8.2.5 Do not let users reuse the last X passwords. 400 Changed password cannot be identical to the last <number>
passwords.
Other – Prevent passwords from being changed for a minimum of X
days.
401 Cannot change password before minimum age <number> days is
met

The reason object will contain the following keys:

  • reasonType: Description of the PCI-DSS event
  • reasonCode: HTTP response code for the event

For more information, see security_compliance for configuring PCI-DSS in
keystone.

Supported Events

The following table displays the compatibility between resource types
and operations.

Resource Type Supported Operations typeURI
group create,update,delete data/security/group
project create,update,delete data/security/project
role create,update,delete data/security/role
domain create,update,delete data/security/domain
user create,update,delete data/security/account/user
trust create,delete data/security/trust
region create,update,delete data/security/region
endpoint create,update,delete data/security/endpoint
service create,update,delete data/security/service
policy create,update,delete data/security/policy
role assignment add,remove data/security/account/user
None authenticate data/security/account/user

Example Notification –
Project Create

The following is an example of a notification that is sent when a
project is created. This example can be applied for any
create, update or delete event
that is seen in the table above. The <action> and
typeURI fields will be change.

The difference to note is the inclusion of the
resource_info field which contains the
<resource_id> that is undergoing the operation. Thus
creating a common element between the CADF and Basic notification
formats.

{
    "event_type": "identity.project.created",
    "message_id": "0156ee79-b35f-4cef-ac37-d4a85f231c69",
    "payload": {
        "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
        "initiator": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "host": {
                "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
                "address": "127.0.0.1"
            },
            "id": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a"
        },
        "target": {
            "typeURI": "data/security/project",
            "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
        },
        "observer": {
            "typeURI": "service/security",
            "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
        },
        "eventType": "activity",
        "eventTime": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
        "action": "created.project",
        "outcome": "success",
        "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f",
        "resource_info": "671da331c47d4e29bb6ea1d270154ec3"
    },
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2013-08-29 19:03:45.960280"
}

Example Notification –
Authentication

The following is an example of a notification that is sent when a
user authenticates with Keystone.

Note that this notification will be emitted if a user successfully
authenticates, and when a user fails to authenticate.

{
    "event_type": "identity.authenticate",
    "message_id": "1371a590-d5fd-448f-b3bb-a14dead6f4cb",
    "payload": {
        "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
        "initiator": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "host": {
                "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
                "address": "127.0.0.1"
            },
            "id": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a"
        },
        "target": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
        },
        "observer": {
            "typeURI": "service/security",
            "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
        },
        "eventType": "activity",
        "eventTime": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
        "action": "authenticate",
        "outcome": "success",
        "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f"
    },
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842"
}

Example
Notification – Federated Authentication

The following is an example of a notification that is sent when a
user authenticates with Keystone via Federation.

This example is similar to the one seen above, however the
initiator portion of the payload contains a
new credential section.

{
    "event_type": "identity.authenticate",
    "message_id": "1371a590-d5fd-448f-b3bb-a14dead6f4cb",
    "payload": {
        "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
        "initiator": {
            "credential": {
                "type": "http://docs.oasis-open.org/security/saml/v2.0",
                "token": "671da331c47d4e29bb6ea1d270154ec3",
                "identity_provider": "ACME",
                "user": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a",
                "groups": [
                    "developers"
                ]
            },
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "host": {
                "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
                "address": "127.0.0.1"
            },
            "id": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a"
        },
        "target": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
        },
        "observer": {
            "typeURI": "service/security",
            "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
        },
        "eventType": "activity",
        "eventTime": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
        "action": "authenticate",
        "outcome": "success",
        "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f"
    },
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2014-02-14T01:20:47.932842"
}

Example Notification –
Role Assignment

The following is an example of a notification that is sent when a
role is granted or revoked to a project or domain, for a user or
group.

It is important to note that this type of notification has many new
keys that convey the necessary information. Expect the following in the
payload: role,
inherited_to_project, project or
domain, user or group. With the
exception of inherited_to_project, each will represent the
unique identifier of the resource type.

{
    "event_type": "identity.role_assignment.created",
    "message_id": "a5901371-d5fd-b3bb-448f-a14dead6f4cb",
    "payload": {
        "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
        "initiator": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "host": {
                "agent": "curl/7.22.0(x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)",
                "address": "127.0.0.1"
            },
            "id": "c9f76d3c31e142af9291de2935bde98a"
        },
        "target": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "id": "openstack:1c2fc591-facb-4479-a327-520dade1ea15"
        },
        "observer": {
            "typeURI": "service/security",
            "id": "openstack:3d4a50a9-2b59-438b-bf19-c231f9c7625a"
        },
        "eventType": "activity",
        "eventTime": "2014-08-20T01:20:47.932842+00:00",
        "role": "0e6b990380154a2599ce6b6e91548a68",
        "project": "24bdcff1aab8474895dbaac509793de1",
        "inherited_to_projects": false,
        "group": "c1e22dc67cbd469ea0e33bf428fe597a",
        "action": "created.role_assignment",
        "outcome": "success",
        "id": "openstack:f5352d7b-bee6-4c22-8213-450e7b646e9f"
    },
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2014-08-20T01:20:47.932842"
}

Example Notification –
Expired Password

The following is an example of a notification that is sent when a
user attempts to authenticate but their password has expired.

In this example, the payload contains a
reason portion which contains both a
reasonCode and reasonType.

{
    "priority": "INFO",
    "_unique_id": "222441bdc958423d8af6f28f9c558614",
    "event_type": "identity.authenticate",
    "timestamp": "2016-11-11 18:31:11.290821",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "payload": {
        "typeURI": "http://schemas.dmtf.org/cloud/audit/1.0/event",
        "initiator": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "host": {
                "address": "127.0.0.1"
            },
            "id": "73a19db6-e26b-5313-a6df-58d297fa652e"
        },
        "target": {
            "typeURI": "service/security/account/user",
            "id": "c23e6cb7-abe0-5e42-b7f7-4c4104ea77b0"
        },
        "observer": {
            "typeURI": "service/security",
            "id": "9bdddeda6a0b451e9e0439646e532afd"
        },
        "eventType": "activity",
        "eventTime": "2016-11-11T18:31:11.156356+0000",
        "reason": {
            "reasonCode": 401,
            "reasonType": "The password is expired and needs to be reset for user: ed1ab0b40f284fb48fea9e25d0d157fc"
        },
        "action": "authenticate",
        "outcome": "failure",
        "id": "78cd795f-5850-532f-9ab1-5adb04e30c0f"
    },
    "message_id": "9a97e9d0-fef1-4852-8e82-bb693358bc46"
}

Basic Notifications

All basic notifications contain a limited amount of information,
specifically, just the resource type, operation, and resource id.

The payload portion of a Basic Notification is a single
key-value pair.

{
    "resource_info": <resource_id>
}

Where <resource_id> is the unique identifier
assigned to the resource_type that is undergoing the
<operation>.

Supported Events

The following table displays the compatibility between resource types
and operations.

Resource Type Supported Operations
group create,update,delete
project create,update,delete
role create,update,delete
domain create,update,delete
user create,update,delete
trust create,delete
region create,update,delete
endpoint create,update,delete
service create,update,delete
policy create,update,delete

Note, trusts are an immutable resource, they do not
support update operations.

Example Notification

This is an example of a notification sent for a newly created
user:

{
    "event_type": "identity.user.created",
    "message_id": "0156ee79-b35f-4cef-ac37-d4a85f231c69",
    "payload": {
        "resource_info": "671da331c47d4e29bb6ea1d270154ec3"
    },
    "priority": "INFO",
    "publisher_id": "identity.host1234",
    "timestamp": "2013-08-29 19:03:45.960280"
}

If the operation fails, the notification won’t be sent, and no
special error notification will be sent. Information about the error is
handled through normal exception paths.

Recommendations for
consumers

One of the most important notifications that Keystone emits is for
project deletions (event_type =
identity.project.deleted). This event should indicate to
the rest of OpenStack that all resources (such as virtual machines)
associated with the project should be deleted.

Projects can also have update events (event_type =
identity.project.updated), wherein the project has been
disabled. Keystone ensures this has an immediate impact on the
accessibility of the project’s resources by revoking tokens with
authorization on the project, but should not have a
direct impact on the projects resources (in other words, virtual
machines should not be deleted).

Opting out of certain
notifications

There are many notifications that Keystone emits and some deployers
may only care about certain events. In Keystone there is a way to
opt-out of certain notifications. In
/etc/keystone/keystone.conf you can set
opt_out to the event you wish to opt-out of. It is possible
to opt-out of multiple events.

Example:

[DEFAULT]
notification_opt_out = identity.user.created
notification_opt_out = identity.role_assignment.created
notification_opt_out = identity.authenticate.pending

This will opt-out notifications for user creation, role assignment
creation and successful authentications. For a list of event types that
can be used, refer to: Telemetry
Measurements
.

By default, messages for the following authentication events are
suppressed since they are too noisy:
identity.authenticate.success,
identity.authenticate.pending and
identity.authenticate.failed.

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