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Taikun OCP Guide

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The Glance Image Cache

The Glance API server may be configured to have an optional local
image cache. A local image cache stores a copy of image files,
essentially enabling multiple API servers to serve the same image file,
resulting in an increase in scalability due to an increased number of
endpoints serving an image file.

This local image cache is transparent to the end user — in other
words, the end user doesn’t know that the Glance API is streaming an
image file from its local cache or from the actual backend storage
system.

Managing the Glance Image
Cache

While image files are automatically placed in the image cache on
successful requests to GET /images/<IMAGE_ID>, the
image cache is not automatically managed. Here, we describe the basics
of how to manage the local image cache on Glance API servers and how to
automate this cache management.

Configuration options
for the Image Cache

The Glance cache uses two files: one for configuring the server and
another for the utilities. The glance-api.conf is for the
server and the glance-cache.conf is for the utilities.

The following options are in both configuration files. These need the
same values otherwise the cache will potentially run into problems.

  • image_cache_dir This is the base directory where Glance
    stores the cache data (Required to be set, as does not have a
    default).
  • image_cache_sqlite_db Path to the sqlite file database
    that will be used for cache management. This is a relative path from the
    image_cache_dir directory
    (Default:cache.db).
  • image_cache_driver The driver used for cache
    management. (Default:sqlite)
  • image_cache_max_size The size when the
    glance-cache-pruner will remove the oldest images, to reduce the bytes
    until under this value. (Default:10 GB)
  • image_cache_stall_time The amount of time an incomplete
    image will stay in the cache, after this the incomplete image will be
    deleted. (Default:1 day)

The following values are the ones that are specific to the
glance-cache.conf and are only required for the prefetcher
to run correctly.

  • admin_user The username for an admin account, this is
    so it can get the image data into the cache.
  • admin_password The password to the admin account.
  • admin_tenant_name The tenant of the admin account.
  • auth_url The URL used to authenticate to keystone. This
    will be taken from the environment variables if it exists.
  • filesystem_store_datadir This is used if using the
    filesystem store, points to where the data is kept.
  • filesystem_store_datadirs This is used to point to
    multiple filesystem stores.

Controlling the
Growth of the Image Cache

The image cache has a configurable maximum size (the
image_cache_max_size configuration file option). The
image_cache_max_size is an upper limit beyond which pruner,
if running, starts cleaning the images cache. However, when images are
successfully returned from a call to
GET /images/<IMAGE_ID>, the image cache automatically
writes the image file to its cache, regardless of whether the resulting
write would make the image cache’s size exceed the value of
image_cache_max_size. In order to keep the image cache at
or below this maximum cache size, you need to run the
glance-cache-pruner executable.

The recommended practice is to use cron to fire
glance-cache-pruner at a regular interval.

Cleaning the Image Cache

Over time, the image cache can accumulate image files that are either
in a stalled or invalid state. Stalled image files are the result of an
image cache write failing to complete. Invalid image files are the
result of an image file not being written properly to disk.

To remove these types of files, you run the
glance-cache-cleaner executable.

The recommended practice is to use cron to fire
glance-cache-cleaner at a semi-regular interval.

Controlling Image Cache
using V2 API

In Yoga, Glance API has added new APIs for managing cache related
operations. In Zed, Glance has removed support of
cache_images periodic job which was used to prefetch all
queued images concurrently, logging the results of the fetch for each
image. Instead the image can be immediately cached once it is queued for
caching. You can use below API calls to control the cache related
operations.

To queue an image for immediate caching, you can use one of the
following methods:

  • You can call PUT /cache/<IMAGE_ID> to queue
    the image for immediate caching with identifier
    <IMAGE_ID>

  • Alternately, you can use the cache-queue command of
    glance client to queue the image for immediate caching.

    $ glance cache-queue <IMAGE_ID>

    This will queue the image with identifier
    <IMAGE_ID> for immediate caching.

To find out which images are in the image cache use one of the
following methods:

  • You can call GET /cache to see a JSON-serialized
    list of mappings that show cached images, the number of cache hits on
    each image, the size of the image, and the times they were last accessed
    as well as images which are queued for caching.

  • Alternately, you can use the cache-list command of
    glance client. Example usage:

    $ glance cache-list

To delete images which are already cached or queued for caching use
one of the following methods:

  • You can call DELETE /cache/<IMAGE_ID> to
    remove the image file for image with identifier
    <IMAGE_ID> from the cache or queued state.

  • Alternately, you can use the cache-delete command of
    glance client. Example usage:

    $ glance cache-delete <IMAGE_ID>
  • You can also call DELETE /cache with header
    x-image-cache-clear-target to delete either only cached
    images or only queued images or both. Possible values for header are
    cache, queue, both.

  • Alternately, you can use the cache-clear command of
    glance client to delete only cached images or only queued images or
    both. Example usage:

    $ glance cache-clear (default target is ``both``)
    $ glance cache-clear --target cached
    $ glance cache-clear --target queued
  • In Glance, image cache is local to each node, hence cache
    operations must be performed on each node locally. If OpenStack cloud is
    deployed with HA (3/5/7 controllers) then while running the cache
    related operations it is necessary to specify the HOST address using -H
    option. Example usage:

    $ glance --host=<HOST> cache-list

Finding
Which Images are in the Image Cache with glance-cache-manage

You can find out which images are in the image cache using one of the
following methods:

  • If the cachemanage middleware is enabled in the
    application pipeline, you may call GET /cached-images to
    see a JSON-serialized list of mappings that show cached images, the
    number of cache hits on each image, the size of the image, and the times
    they were last accessed.

  • Alternately, you can use the glance-cache-manage
    program. This program may be run from a different host than the host
    containing the image cache. Example usage:

    $ glance-cache-manage --host=<HOST> list-cached
  • In Glance, image cache is local to each node, hence image cache
    management must be performed on each node locally. If OpenStack cloud is
    deployed with HA (3/5/7 controllers) then while running the cache
    management it is necessary to specify the HOST address using -H option.
    Example usage:

    $ glance-cache-manage --host=<HOST> list-cached
  • You can issue the following call on *nix systems (on the host
    that contains the image cache):

    $ ls -lhR $IMAGE_CACHE_DIR

    where $IMAGE_CACHE_DIR is the value of the
    image_cache_dir configuration variable.

    Note that the image’s cache hit is not shown using this
    method.

Manually
Removing Images from the Image Cache with glance-cache-manage

If the cachemanage middleware is enabled, you may call
DELETE /cached-images/<IMAGE_ID> to remove the image
file for image with identifier <IMAGE_ID> from the
cache.

Alternately, you can use the glance-cache-manage
program. Example usage:

$ glance-cache-manage --host=<HOST> delete-cached-image <IMAGE_ID>

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